Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Test Till Ramm




Scholtz, G. (in press) Die Evolution als Gestalterin. In: Doll, N., Bredekamp, H. & Schäffner W. (eds.). +ultra. gestaltung schafft wissen. Seemann, Leipzig.

Scholtz, G. (in press) Zoologische Lehrsammlung (Zoological Teaching Collection) of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. In: Beck, L.A. (ed.). Zoological Collections of Germany – The animal kingdom in its amazing plenty at museums and universities. Springer, Berlin.

Scholtz, G. (2016) Heads and brains in arthropods: 40 years after the ‘endless dispute’. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Harzsch, S. & Purschke, G. (eds.). Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems. Cambridge University press, Cambridge pp. 402-410.

Scholtz, G. (2016) Happy Birthday! The first decade of Marmorkrebs research—results and perspectives. In: Kawai, T., Faulkes, Z. & Scholtz, G. (eds.). Freshwater Crayfish - A Global Overview. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 3-12.

Kawai, T., Faulkes, Z. & Scholtz, G. (2016) Preface. In: Kawai, T., Faulkes, Z. & Scholtz, G. (eds.). Freshwater Crayfish - A Global Overview. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. v-vi.

Kawai, T., Faulkes, Z. & Scholtz, G. (2016) Editors: Freshwater Crayfish: A Global Overview. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Scholtz, G. & Brenneis, G. (2016): A specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg is in agreement with the ‘boundary model’ of appendage formation. The Science of Nature 103: 13.

Martin, P., Thonagel, S. & Scholtz G. (2016) The parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (Malacostraca: Decapoda: Cambaridae) is a triploid organism. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 54: 13-21.



Reindl, A., Strobach, T., Becker, C., Scholtz, G. & Schubert, T. (2015) Crab or lobster? Mental principles underlying the categorization of crustaceans by biology experts and non-experts. Zoologischer Anzeiger 256: 28-35.

Scholtz, G. (2015) Editorial: ICIM 3. Zoologischer Anzeiger 256: 1.

Scholtz, G. (2015) Editor: Special issue on the 3rd International Congress on Invertebrate Morphology (ICIM 3). Zoologischer Anzeiger 256: 1-104

Liu, Y., Scholtz, G. & Hou, X. (2015) When a 520 million-year-old Chengjiang fossil meets a modern micro-CT – a case study. Scientific Reports 5: 12802.

Shen, H., Braband, A. & Scholtz, G. (2015) The complete mitogenomes of lobsters and crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidea) reveal surprising differences in closely related taxa and convergences to Priapulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 53: 273-281.

Brenneis, G. & Scholtz, G. (2015) Serotonin-immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of Pycnogonida – support for individually identifiable neurons as ancestral feature of the arthropod nervous system. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:136.

Seliger, A., Jirikowski, G. & Scholtz, G. (2015) Morphologische Analysen vegetabiler Ornamente der Gotik – Eine interdisziplinäre Annäherung an kunsthistorische Reihen. In: Bredekamp, H. & Schäffner, W. (eds.). Haare hören – Strukturen wissen – Räume agieren. Berichte aus dem Interdisziplinären Labor Bild Wissen Gestaltung. transcript, Bielefeld, pp. 61-77

Scholtz, G. (2015) Morphologische Modelle von Tieren und Pflanzen – veraltet oder auf dem Weg zu neuer Blüte? In Grotz, K. (ed.). Modellschau – Perspektiven auf Botanische Modelle (Ausstellungskatalog), Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin, pp 60-65.



Scholtz, G. (2014) Book review: A cookbook for experimental embryology. Evolution & Development 16: 320-321.

Scholtz, G. (2014) Astacus fluviatilis. Wachsmodellserie zur Entwicklung des Flusskrebses. In Ludwig, D., Weber, C. & Zauzig, O. (eds.). Das materielle Modell – Objektgeschichten aus der wissenschaftlichen Praxis. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn, pp. 41-51.

Alwes, F. & Scholtz, G. (2014) The early development of the onychopod cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda). Frontiers in Zoology 11: 10.

Klann, M. & Scholtz, G. (2014) Early embryonic development of the freshwater shrimp Caridina multidentata (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae). Zoomorphology 133: 295-306.

Scholtz, G. (2014) Verbundene Zwillinge bei Krebsen. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 50 (N.F.): 173-188.

Scholtz, G., Ng, P.K.L. & Moore, S. (2014) A crab with three eyes, two rostra, and a dorsal antenna-like structure. Arthropod Structure and Development 43: 163-173.

Brenneis, G. & Scholtz, G. (2014) The 'Ventral Organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development. PLoS One 9(4): e95435.

Scholtz, G. (2014) Evolution of crabs – history and deconstruction of a prime example of convergence. Contributions to Zoology 83: 87-105.



Scholtz, G. (2013) A plea for ‘genealogical thinking’ in comparative biology – a rebuttal to the reply of Szucsich, Wirkner, and Pass to my article ‘Deconstructing Morphology’. Acta Zoologica 94: 218-221.

Brenneis, G., Stollewerk, A. & Scholtz, G. (2013) Embryonic neurogenesis in Pseudopallene sp. (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) includes two subsequent phases with similarities to different arthropod groups. EvoDevo 4: 32.

Bohman, P., Edsman, L., Martin, P. & Scholtz, G. (2013) The first Marmorkrebs (Decapoda: Astacida: Cambaridae) in Scandinavia. BioInvasions Records 2: 227–232.

Scholtz, G. (2013) Subclass Hoplocarida, order Stomatopoda: Embryonic Development. In: Forest, J., von Vaupel Klein, J.C. & Schram, F.R. (eds.).Treatise on zoology - Anatomy, taxonomy, biology. The Crustacea revised and updated from the Traité de Zoologie. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden, 4A, pp. 243-257.

Scholtz, G. & Wolff, C. (2013) Arthropod embryology: cleavage and germ band development. In Minelli, A., Boxshall, G. & Fusco G. (eds.). Arthropod Biology and Evolution. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 63-90.

Scholtz, G. (2013) Versuch einer analytischen Morphologie. In: Bruhn, M. & Scholtz, G. (eds.). Morphologien. Bildwelten des Wissens, Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik (Eds. Bredekamp, H., Bruhn, M. & Werner, G.), 9.2. Akademie Verlag, Berlin, pp. 30-44.

Bruhn, M. & Scholtz, G. (2013) Editorial: In: Bruhn, M. & Scholtz, G. (eds.). Morphologien. Bildwelten des Wissens, Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik (eds. Bredekamp, H., Bruhn, M. & Werner, G.), 9.2. Akademie Verlag, Berlin, pp. 5-6.

Bruhn, M. & Scholtz, G. (2013) Editors: Morphologien. Bildwelten des Wissens, Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik, 9.2. Akademie Verlag, Berlin.

Shen, H., Braband, A. & Scholtz, G. (2013) Mitogenomic analysis of decapod crustacean phylogeny corroborates traditional views on their relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66: 776-789.



Hippler, D., Hu, N., Steiner, M., Scholtz, G. & Franz, G. (2012) Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian–Cambrian embryos. Biogeosciences 9: 1765-1775.

Scholtz, G. (2012) Comment on “Gerhard Scholtz Recipient of the Crustacean Society Excellence in Research Award.” Journal of Crustacean Biology 32: 343-344.

Markus Pennerstorfer, M. & Scholtz, G. (2012) Early cleavage in Phoronis muelleri (Phoronida) displays spiral features. Evolution & Development 14: 484-500.

Martin,P. and Scholtz, G. (2012) "A case of intersexuality in the parthenogenetic marmorkrebs (Decapoda: Astacida: Cambaridae)" J Crust Biol 32, 345–35

Mittmann, B. and Wolff, C. (2012)"Embryonic development and staging of the cobweb spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch, 1841 (syn.: Achaearanea tepidariorum; Aranaeomorphae; Theridiidae)" Dev Genes Evol 220, 89–105; doi: 10.1007/s00427-012-0401-0

Hunnekuhl, V. and Wolff, C. (2012) "Reconstruction of mesodermal cell lineage and spatiotemporal patterning of the mesoderm in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana" Dev Dyn 241, 697-717; doi: 10.1002/dvdy.23758



Reimann, A., Richter, S. and Scholtz, G. (2011) "Phylogeny of the Anomala (Crustacea, Decapoda, Reptantia) based on the ossicles of the foregut" Zool Anz 250, 316-342

Baba, K., Fujita, Y., Wehrtmann, I.S. and Scholtz, G. (2011) "Developmental biology of squat lobsters" In: The Biology of Squat Lobsters (eds. Poore, G.C.B., Ahyong, S.T. and Taylor, J.), CSIRO-Publishing, Collingwood, pp 105-148

Hippler, D., Hu, N., Steiner, M., Scholtz, G. and Franz G. (2011) "Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos" Biogeosciences Discussion 8, 12051-12077

Scholtz, G. (2011) "Mikroästhetik - Bilder von historischen histologischen Präparaten der Zoologischen Lehrsammlung der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin" Mikrokosmos 100, 280-285

Brenneis. G., Arango, C.P. and Scholtz, G. (2011) "Morphogenesis of Pseudopallene sp. (Pycnogonida, Callipallenidae) II: postembryonic development" Dev Genes Evol 221, 329-350

Brenneis. G., Arango, C.P. and Scholtz, G. (2011) "Morphogenesis of Pseudopallene sp. (Pycnogonida, Callipallenidae) I: embryonic development" Dev Genes Evol 221, 309-328

Wolff, C. and Hilbrant, M. (2011) "The embryonic development of the central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei" Front Zool 8, 15 doi:10.1186/1742-9994-8-15

Ungerer, P., Geppert, M. and Wolff, C. (2011) "Axogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana" Integr Zool 6, 28-44 doi: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00227.x



Fischer, A.H.L., Pabst, T. and Scholtz, G. (2010) "Germ band differentiation in the stomatopod Gonodactylaceus falcatus and the origin of the stereotyped cell division pattern in Malacostraca (Crustacea)" Arthr Struct Dev 39, 411-422

Martin, P., Shen, H., Füllner, G. and Scholtz, G. (2010) "The first record of the parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (Decapoda, Astacida, Cambaridae) in the wild in Saxony (Germany) raises the question of its actual threat to European freshwater ecosystems" Aquat Invas 5, 397–403

Richter, S., Loesel, R., Purschke, G., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Scholtz, G., Stach, T.,Vogt, L., Wanninger, A., Brenneis, G., Doring, C., Faller, S., Fritsch, M., Grobe, P., Heuer, C.M., Kaul, S., Moller, O.S., Muller, C.H.G., Rieger, V., Rothe, B.H., Stegner, M.E.J. and Harzsch, S. (2010) "Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary" Front Zool 7, 29

Martin, P., Dorn, N. J., Kawai, T., van der Heiden, C. and Scholtz, G. (2010) "The enigmatic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) is the parthenogenetic form of Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870)" Cont Zool 79, 107-118 (download pdf, 408 kB)

Jirikowski, G., Kreissl, S., Richter, S. & Wolff, C. (2010) "Muscle development in the marbled crayfish – insights from an emerging model organism (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda" Dev Genes Evol 220, 89–105, doi:10.1007/s00427-010-0331-7

Machner, J. and Scholtz, G. (2010) " A scanning electron microscopy study of the embryonic development of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) J Morph 271, 1306–1318, doi: 10.1002/jmor.10871

Fischer, A.H.L. and Scholtz, G. (2010) "Axogenesis in the stomatopod crustacean Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Malacostraca)" Inv Biol 129, 59-76, doi:10.1111/j.1744-7410.2010.00192.x

Scholtz, G. (2010) "Deconstructing morphology" Acta Zool 91, 44–63, doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2009.00424.x

Brenneis, G. and Richter, S. (2010) "Architecture of the nervous system in Mystacocarida (Arthropoda, Crustacea) – an immunohistochemical study and 3D reconstruction." J Morph 271, 169-189, doi:10.1002/jmor.10789



Wolff, C. (2009) "The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea)" Dev Genes Evol 219, 545–564, doi:10.1007/s00427-010-0316-6

Dunlop, J. A., Kamenz, C. and Talarico, G. (2009) "A fossil trigonotarbid with a ricinuleid-like pedipalpal claw" Zoomorphology 128, 305–313, doi:10.1007/s00435-009-0090-z

Kamenz, C. and Weidemann, G. (2009) "Heavy metal—A contrasting substance for micro-tomographical visualization of scorpion book lungs" Micron 40, 911-917, doi:10.1016/j.micron.2009.05.007

Biffis, C., Alwes, F. and Scholtz, G. (2009) "Cleavage and gastrulation of the dendrobranchiate shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda)" Arthr Struct Dev 38, 527-540

Willems, M., Egger, B., Wolff, C., Mouton, S., Houthoofd, W., Fonderie, P., Couvreur, M., Artois, T. and Borgonie, G. (2009) "Embryonic origins of hull cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano through cell lineage analysis: developmental and phylogenetic implications" Dev Genes Evol  219,  409-417

Kawai, T., Scholtz, G., Morioka, S., Ramanamandimby, F., Lukhaup, C. and Hanamura, Y. (2009) "Parthenogenetic alien crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) spreading in Madagascar" J Crust Biol 29, 562-567

Ungerer, P. and Scholtz, G. (2009) "Cleavage and gastrulation in Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida): morphological support for the Ecdysozoa?" Zoomorphology 128, 263-274

Scholtz, G., Ponomarenko, E. & Wolff, C. (2009)"Cirripede cleavage patterns and the origin of the Rhizocephala (Crustacea: Thecostraca)" Arthr Syst Phyl 67, 219-228

Scholtz, G., Abzhanov, A., Alwes, F., Biffis, C. and Pint, J. (2009) "Development, genes, and decapod evolution" In: Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics (eds. Martin, J.W., Crandall, K.A. and Felder D.L.) Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, Boca Raton pp. 31- 46

Scholtz, G. and McLay, C.L. (2009) "Is the Brachyura Podotremata a monophyletic group?" In: Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics (eds. Martin, J.W., Crandall, K.A. and Felder D.L.) Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 417- 435

Semmler, H., Høeg, J.T., Scholtz, G. and Wanninger, A. (2009) "Three-dimensional reconstruction of the naupliar musculature and a scanning electron microscopy atlas of nauplius development of Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)" Arthr Struct Dev 38, 135-145; doi:10.1016/j.asd.2008.09.003

Martin, P., Pfeifer, M. and Füllner, G. (2009) "Erfassung der Bestandssituation der Flusskrebse im Freistaat Sachsen : Möglichkeiten für Schutz- und Entwicklungsmaßnahmen als Voraussetzung für eine Nutzung in der Aquakultur" Editor: Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie. ISBN 978-3-9812792-0-7

Scholtz, G. (2009) "Differenzieren und Synthetisieren: Zwei Formen des Vergleichens in der Biologie" Bildwelten des Wissens, Kunsthistorisches Jahrbuch für Bildkritik 6/2, 70-78

Koenemann, S., Olesen, J., Alwes, F., Iliffe T.M., Hoenemann, M., Ungerer, P., Wolff. C. and Scholtz, G. (2009) "The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea) - additional results and new insights" Dev Genes Evol 219(3), 131-145; doi:10.1007/s00427-009-0273-0

Pabst, T. and Scholtz, G. (2009) "The development of phyllopodous limbs in Leptostracea and Branchiopoda" J Crust Biol 29(1), 1-12



Poschmann, M., Dunlop, J., Kamenz, C., Scholtz, G. (2008) "The Lower Devonian scorpion Waeringoscorpio and the respiratory nature of its filamentous structures, with the description of a new species from the Westerwald area (Germany)" Paläont Zeitsch 82/4, 418-436

Kamenz, C. and Prendini, L. (2008) "An atlas of book lung fine structure in the order Scorpiones (Arachnida)" Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 316, 359pp

Brenneis, G., Ungerer, P. and Scholtz, G. (2008) "The chelifores of sea spiders (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) are the appendages of the deutocerebral segment" Evol Dev 10, 717-724

Scholtz, G. (2008) "Scarab beetles at the interface of wheel invention in nature and culture?" Contrib Zool 77 (3)

Scholtz, G. (2008) "Zoological detective stories: the case of the facetotectan life cycle" J Biol 7, 16

Schram, F.R., Ahyong, S.T., Crandall, K.A., Gherardi, F., Grygier, M.J., Lavalli, K.L., Poore, G., Rogers, D.C., Scholtz, G, Simon, T., Tamone, S. and Wickstein, M. (2008) "Publication in the Journal of Crustacean Biology" J Crust Biol 28(2), 197-202

Semmler, H., Wanninger, A., Hoeg, J. and Scholtz, G. (2008) "Immunocytochemical studies on the naupliar nervous system of Balanus improvisus (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thecostraca)" Arthr Struct Dev 37, 383-395

Brösing, A. (2008) "A reconstruction of an evolutionary scenario for the Brachyura (Decapoda) in the context of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary" Crustaceana 8, 271-287

Wolff, C. and Scholtz, G. (2008) "The clonal composition of biramous and uniramous arthropod limbs" Proc R Soc B 275, 1023-1028; doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1327

Kamenz, C., Dunlop, J.A., Scholtz, G., Kerp, H. and Hass, H. (2008) "Microanatomy of Early Devonian book lungs" Biol Letters 4, 212-215; doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0597

Martin, P., Pfeifer, M. and Füllner, G. (2008) "First record of the stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae) from Saxony (Germany)" Faun Abhandl Dresden 26, 103-108

Scholtz, G. (2008) "On comparisons and causes in evolutionary developmental biology" In: Evolving pathways: key themes in evolutionary developmental biology (eds. Minelli, A. and Fusco, G.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp. 144-159

Zantke, J., Wolff, C. and Scholtz, G. (2008) "Three-dimensional reconstruction of the central nervous system of Macrobiotus hufelandi (Eutardigrada, Parachela): implications for the phylogenetic position of Tardigrada" Zoomorphology 127, 21-36; doi: 10.1007/s00435-007-0045-1

Ungerer, P. and Scholtz, G. (2008) "Filling the gap between neuroblasts and identified neurons in crustaceans adds new support for Tetraconata" Proc Roy Soc London B 275, 369-376; doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1391

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2008) "Morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in Tanaidacea and Cumacea - implications for the relationships of 'core group' Peracarida (Malacostraca; Crustacea)" Arthr Struct Dev 37,141-154



Reimann, A. and Richter S. (2007) "The nauplius eye complex in 'conchostracans' (Crustacea, Branchiopoda: Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Cyclestherida) and its phylogenetic implications" Arthr Struct Dev 36(4), 408-419

Martin, P., Kohlmann, K. and Scholtz, G. (2007) "The parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) produces genetically uniform offspring" Naturwissenschaften 94, 843-846; doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0260-0

Schneider, R. (2007) "Zur Situation der Amphibien in Berlin und Brandenburg" Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (N.F.) 45, 69-80

Dunlop, J., Kamenz, C. and Scholtz, G. (2007) "Reinterpreting the morphology of the Jurassic scorpion Liassoscorpionides" Arthr Struct Dev 36, 245-252

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2007) "Comparative analysis of the circulatory system in Amphipoda (Malacostraca, Crustacea)" Acta Zool 88, 159-17

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2007) "Three-dimensional anatomy of Spelaeogriphacea and Mictacea (Malacostraca, Crustacea) - the circulatory system and its spatial relations to other major organ systems" Zool J Linn Soc 149, 629-642

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2007) "The circulatory system of Mysidacea revisited - implications for the phylogenetic position of Mysida and Lophogastrida (Malacostraca, Crustacea)" J Morph 268, 311-328

Brösing, A., Richter, S. and Scholtz, G. (2007) " Phylogenetic analysis of the Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda) based on characters of the foregut with establishment of a new taxon" J Zool Syst Evol Res 45, 20-32



Wolff, C.  and Scholtz, G. (2006) "Cell lineage analysis of the mandibular segment of the amphipod Orchestia cavimana reveals that the crustacean paragnaths are sternal outgrowths and not limbs" Front Zool 3(1), 19

Knopf, F., Koenemann, S., Schram, F.R. and Wolff, C. (2006) "The urosome of the Pan- and Peracarida" Contrib Zool 75 (1/2), 1-21

Podsiadlowski, L. and Braband, A. (2006) "The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Nymphon gracile (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida)" BMC Genomics 7, 284

Semmler, H., Hoeg, J.T., Scholtz, G. and Wanninger, A. (2006) "Preliminary results on the anatomy of the larval musculature of Balanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854) (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thecostraca) using phalloidin staining in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy" Invertebr Reprod Dev 49 (3), 207-212

Hejnol, A., Schnabel, R and Scholtz, G. (2006) "A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida) - developmental and phylogenetic implications" Dev Genes Evol 216, 755-767

Scholtz, G. and Edgecombe, G.D. (2006) "The evolution of arthropod heads: reconciling morphological, developmental and palaeontological evidence" Dev Gen Evol 216 (7-8), 395-415

Deutsch, J. S., Scholtz, G. and Hartenstein, V. (2006) "Development and Phylogeny of Arthropods : a foreword from the editors" Dev Genes Evol 216 (7-8), 355-356

Deutsch, J. S. and Scholtz, G. (2006) Editors: Development and Phylogeny of Arthropods. Special issue of Development Genes and Evolution 216 (7-8), 355-498

Braband, A., Kawai, T. and Scholtz, G. (2006) "The phylogenetic position of the East Asian freshwater crayfish Cambaroides within the Northern Hemisphere Astacoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida) based on molecular data" J Zool Syst Evol Res 44, 17-24

Scholtz, G. and Kamenz, C. (2006) "The book lungs of Scorpiones and Tetrapulmonata (Chelicerata, Arachnida): Evidence for homology and a single terrestrialisation event of a common arachnid ancestor" Zoology 109 (1), 2-13

Alwes, F. and Scholtz, G. (2006) "Stages and other aspects of the embryology of the parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (Decapoda, Reptantia, Astacida)" Dev Genes Evol 216, 169-184


Scholtz G. (2005) Better than the real thing? Book review of " Models - The third dimension of science" (Eds. de Chadarevian, S., Hopwood, N.) Acta Zool 86, 303-305

Scholtz, G. (2005) "Homology and ontogeny: Pattern and process in comparative developmental biology" Theor Biosci 124, 121-143

Scholtz, G. and Edgecombe, G.D (2005) "Heads, Hox and the phylogenetic position of trilobites" In: Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships (Eds. S. Koenemann and R. Jenner ), Crustacean Issues 16, 139-165

Jenner, R.A. and Scholtz, G. (2005) "Playing another round of metazoan phylogenetics: historical epistemology, sensitivity analysis, and the position of Arthropoda within the Metazoa on the basis of morphology" In: Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships (Eds. S. Koenemann and R. Jenner ), Crustacean Issues 16, 355-385

Ungerer, P. and Wolff, C. (2005) "External morphology of limb development in the amphipod Orchestia cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida)" Zoomorphology 124 (2), 89-99. doi: 10.1007/s00435-005-0114-2

Kamenz, C., Dunlop, J. A. and Scholtz, G. (2005) "Characters in the book lungs of Scorpiones (Chelicerata, Arachnida) revealed by scanning electron microscopy" Zoomorphology 124 (2), 101-109

Pabst, T. and Richter, S. (2004) "The larval development of an Australian limnadiid clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), and a comparison with other Limnadiidae" Zool Anz 243, 99-115

Scholtz, G. (2004) "Coelenterata versus Acrosomata - zur Position der Rippenquallen (Ctenophora) im phylogenetischen System der Metazoa" In: Kontroversen in der Phylogenetischen Systematik (Eds. Richter, S. und Sudhaus, W.), Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (N.F.) 43, 15-33

Richter, S. and Wirkner, C.S. (2004) "Kontroversen in der phylogenetischen Systematik der Euarthropoda" In: Kontroversen in der Phylogenetischen Systematik (Eds. Richter, S. und Sudhaus, W.), Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (N.F.) 43, 73-102

Hejnol, A. and Scholtz, G. (2004) "Clonal analysis of Distal-less and engrailed expression patterns during early morphogenesis of uniramous and biramous crustacean limbs" Dev Genes Evol 214, 473-485

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2004) "Improvement of microanatomical research by combining corrosion casts with MicroCT and 3D reconstruction, exemplifed in the circulatory organs of the woodlouse" Micr Res Tech 64, 250-254

Gruner, H.-E. and Scholtz, G. (2004) "Segmentation, tagmata, and appendages" In: Treatise on zoology - anatomy, taxonomy, biology. The Crustacea revised and updated from the Traité de Zoologie (eds. J. Forest, J.C. von Vaupel Klein and F.R. Schram), Koninklijke Brill, Leiden 1: 13-57, figs. 2.1-2.34

Alwes, F. and Scholtz, G. (2004) "Cleavage and gastrulation of the euphausiacean Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Crustacea, Malacostraca)" Zoomorphology 123, 125-137

Voigt G., Tolley L. and Scholtz G. (2004) "Life stages and reproductive components of the marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish), the first parthenogenetic decapod crustacean" J Morph 261, 286-311

Lundberg, U. (2004) "Behavioural elements of the noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (Linneus, 1758)" Crustaceana 77(2), 137-162

Richter, S. (2004) "A comparison of the mandibular gnathal edges in branchiopod crustaceans – implications for the phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)" Zoomorphology 123, 31-44

Dohle W., Gerberding M., Hejnol A. and Scholtz G. (2004) "Cell lineage, segment differentiation, and gene expression in Crustaceans" In: Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea (ed. G. Scholtz), A.A.Balkema, Lisse 95-133

Scholtz G. (2004) "Baupläne versus ground patterns, phyla versus monophyla: aspects of patterns and processes in evolutionary developmental biology" In: Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea (ed. G. Scholtz), A.A.Balkema, Lisse 3-16

Scholtz G. (2004) Editor: "Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea" A.A.Balkema Publishers, Lisse

Müller C., Rosenberg J., Richter S. and Meyer-Rochow V.-B. (2003) "The compound eye of Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chilopoda: Notostigmophora): an ultrastructural reinvestigation that adds support to the Mandibulata concept" Zoomorphology 122, 191-209

Edgecombe, G.D., Richter, S. and Wilson, G.D.F (2003) "The mandibular gnathal edges: homologous structures throughout Mandibulata" African Invertebrates 44, 115-135

Richter S. (2003) "The mouthparts of two lophogastrids, Chalaraspidum alatum and Pseudochalaraspidum hanseni (Lophogastrida, Peracarida, Malacostraca), including some remarks on the monophyly of the Lophogastrida" J Nat Hist 37, 2773-2786

Wirkner, C.S. and Richter, S. (2003) "The circulatory system in Phreatoicidea: implication for the isopod ground pattern and peracarid phylogeny" Arthr Struct Dev 32, 337-347

Sinakevitch I., Douglas J.K., Scholtz G., Loesel R. and Strausfeld N.J. (2003) "Conserved and convergent organization in the optic lobes of insects and isopods, with reference to other crustacean taxa" J Comp Neurol 467, 150-172

Scholtz G. (2003) "Is the taxon Articulata obsolete? Arguments in favour of a close relationship between annelids and arthropods" In: The New Panorama of Animal Evolution, Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Zoology (ed. A. Legakis, S. Sfenthourakis, R. Polymeni and M. Thessalou-Legaki). Pensoft, Sofia 489- 501

Olesen J., Richter S. and Scholtz G. (2003) "On the ontogeny of Leptodora kindtii (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Cladocera), with notes on the phylogeny of the Cladocera" J Morph 256, 235-259

Mittmann, B. and Scholtz, G. (2003) "Development of the nervous system in the "head" of Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata: Xiphosura): morphological evidence for a correspondence between the segments of the chelicerae and and of the (first) antennae of Mandibulata" Dev Genes Evol 213 (1), 9-17

Scholtz G., Braband A., Tolley L., Reimann A., Mittmann B., Lukhaup C., Steuerwald F. and Vogt G. (2003) "Parthenogenesis in an outsider crayfish" Nature 421, 806

Scholtz G. and Wolff C. (2002) "Cleavage pattern, gastrulation, and germ disc formation of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana" Contrib Zool 71, 9-28

Braband A., Richter S., Hiesel R. and Scholtz G. (2002) "Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllopoda (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers" Mol Phylogenet Evol 25, 229-244

Wolff C. (2002) "Die frühe Entwicklung des Flohkrebses Orchestia cavimana (Amphipoda): Festlegung der Körperachsen und Keimblätter. Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (N.F.) 41, 45-55

Timms, B.T. and Richter, S. (2002) "A preliminary analysis of the conchostracans (Crustacea: Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata) of the middle Paroo catchment of the Australian arid-zone" Hydrobiologia 486, 239-247

Richter S., Edgecombe G.D. and Wilson G.D.F. (2002) "The lacinia mobilis and similar structures - a valuable character in arthropod phylogenetics?" Zool Anz 241, 339-361

Mittmann B. (2002) "Early neurogenesis in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus and its implication for arthropod relationships" Biol Bull 203 (2), 221-222

Wolff C. and Scholtz G. (2002) "Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana" Dev Biol 250, 44-58 doi:10.1006/dbio.2002.0789

Scholtz G. (2002) "The Articulata hypothesis - or what is a segment? Organ Divers Evol 2, 197-215

Richter S. (2002) "The Tetraconata concept: hexapod-crustacean relationships and the phylogeny of Crustacea" Organ Divers Evol 2, 217-237

Kawai, T. and Scholtz, G. (2002) "Behavior of juveniles of the Japanese endemic species Cambaroides japonicus (Decapoda: Astacidea: Cambaridae) with observations on the position of the spermatophore attachment on the adult females." J Crust Biol 22, 532-537

Scholtz G. and Kawai T. (2002) "Aspects of embryonic and post-embryonic development of the Japanese crayfish Cambaroides japonicus (Crustacea, Decapoda) including a hypothesis on the evolution of maternal care in the Astacida" Acta Zool 83, 202-212

Brösing A., Richter S. and Scholtz, G. (2002) "The foregut-ossicle system of Dromia wilsoni, Dromia personata and Lauridromia intermedia (Decapoda, Brachyura, Dromiidae), studied with a new staining method" Arthr Struct Dev 30 (4), 329-338

Richter S. (2002) "Evolution of optical design in Malacostraca" in The Crustacean Nervous System (ed. K. Wiese). Springer Verlag, Berlin 512-524

Scholtz G. (2002) "Phylogeny and Evolution" in Biology of Freshwater Crayfish (ed. D. M. Holdich) Blackwell Science, Oxford 30-52, plates 10-16

Scholtz G. and Gerberding M. (2002) "Cell lineage of crustacean neuroblasts" in The Crustacean Nervous System (ed. K. Wiese) Springer Verlag, Berlin 406-416

Olesen J., Richter S. and Scholtz G. (2001) "The evolutionary transformation from phyllopodous to stenopodous limbs in the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) - Is there a common mechanism for early limb development in arthropods?" Int J Dev Biol 45, 869-876

Scholtz G. (2001) "Evolution of developmental patterns in arthropods - the contribution of gene expression to morphology and phylogenetics" Zoology 103 99-111

Richter S., Braband A., Aladin N. and Scholtz G. (2001) "The Phylogenetic Relationships of "Predatory Water-Fleas" (Cladocera: Onychopoda, Haplopoda) Inferred from 12S rDNA" Mol Phylog Evol 19, 105-113

Richter S. and Scholtz G. (2001) "Phylogenetic analysis of the Malacostraca (Crustacea)" J Zool Syst Evol Research 39, 113-136

Mittmann B. and Scholtz G. (2001) "Distal-less expression in embryos of Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata, Xiphosura) and Lepisma saccharina (Insecta, Zygenomata) suggests a role in the development of mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and the CNS" Dev Genes Evol 211 (5), 232-243

Lundberg U., Szdzuy K. and König I. (2001) "Beobachtungen zur Verhaltensontogenese Afrikanischer Elefanten (Loxodonta africana) im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde" Milu 10, 392-408

Gerberding M. and Scholtz, G. (2001) "Neurons and glia in the midline of the higher crustacean Orchestia cavimana are generated via an invariable cell lineage that comprises a median neuroblast and glial progenitors" Dev Biol 235, 397-409

Errigo M., Mc Guinnes C., Meadors S., Mittmann B., Dogde F. and Barlow R. (2001) "Visually guided behaviour of juvenile horseshoe crabs" Biol Bull 201, 271-272


Scholtz G. (2000) "Evolution of the nauplius stage in malacostracan crustaceans" J Zool Syst Evol Research 38, 175-187

Richter S. (2000) "Franz Eilhard Schulze und die Zoologische Lehrsammlung der Berliner Universität" in Theater der Natur und Kunst / Theatrum naturae et artis. Wunderkammern des Wissens. Bredekamp, H. Brüning, J. Weber, C. (Hrsgb.) 119-127

Hejnol A. and Scholtz G. (2000) "A comparative analysis of cell lineage and gene expression patterns in the malacostracan post-naupliar germ band" Zoology 103, Suppl. III 8

Eder E., Richter S., Gottwald R. and Hödl W. (2000) "First record of Limnadia lenticularis males in Europe (Branchiopoda, Conchostraca)" J Crust Biol 20, 657-662

Brösing A., Scholtz G. and Richter S. (2000) "The foregut-ossicle-system, a new aspect in the phylogeny of podotrematan crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura)" Zoology 103, Suppl. III (DZG 93.1) 100

Braband A., Richter S., Hiesel R. and Scholtz, G. (2000) "Phylogeny of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) inferred by DNA data" Zoology 103, Suppl. III (DZG 93.1) 99

Gerberding M. and Scholtz G. (1999) "Cell lineage of the midline cells in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca) during formation and separation of the germ band" Dev Genes Evol 209(2), 91-102

Scholtz G. (1999) "Freshwater Crayfish Evolution" Freshwater Crayfish 12, 37-48

Richter S. (1999) "The structure of the ommatidia of the Malacostraca (Crustacea) - a phylogenetic approach" Verh naturwiss Ver Hamburg (NF) 38, 161-204

Mittmann B. (1999) "Die Keimstreifbildung und das Expressionsmuster des Homöobox-Gens Distal-less bei primär flügellosen Insekten (Collembola und Zygentoma)" Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (NF) 38, 93-103

Scholtz G., Mittmann B. and Gerberding M. (1998) "The pattern of Distal-less expression in the mouthparts of crustaceans, myriapods and insects: new evidence for a gnathobasic mandible and the common origin of Mandibulata" Int J Dev Biol 42, 801-810

Scholtz G. (1998) "Von Zellen und Kontinenten - die Evolution der Flusskrebse (Decapoda, Astacida)" Stapfia 58 (NF) 137, 205-212

Richter S. (1998) "Die stammesgeschichtlichen Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Flußkrebse - Die Stellung der Astacida im phylogenetischen System der Decapoda (Zehnfußkrebse)" Stapfia 58 (NF) 137, 213-220

Richter S. (1998) "Die Lehrsammlung des Zoologischen Instituts der Berliner Universität - ihre Geschichte und ihre Bedeutung" Sber Ges Naturf Freunde Berlin (NF) 37, 59-76

Mittmann B. and Scholtz G. (1998) "The expression pattern of the homeobox gene Distal-less in apterygote insects" Zoology 101, Suppl. I (DZG 91.1) 22

Scholtz G. (1997) "Cleavage, germ band formation and head segmentation: the ground pattern of the Euarthropoda" in Fortey R.A. Thomas R.H. "Arthropod Relationships" Chapman & Hall, London

Lundberg U. (1997) "Tiersoziologie und Soziobiologie" (Diskussionsforum zu Grundlagen und Probleme der allgemeinen Tiersoziologie von G. Tembrock)" Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 8 (1), 89-92

Scholtz G. and Gerberding M. (1997) "Das frühe Expressionsmuster des Gens Distal-less bei Amphipoden und Isopoden" Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 90.1

Scholtz G. (1997): Editor "Cell lineage and cell fate in animals" Sem Cell Dev Biology 8, 339-400

Dohle W. and Scholtz G. (1997) "How far does cell lineage influence cell fate specification in crustacean embryos?" Sem Cell Dev Biol 8, 379-390

Scholtz G. and Dohle W. (1996) "Cell lineage and cell fate in crustacean embryos - a comparative approach" Int J Dev Biol 40, 211-220

Sandeman D. and Scholtz G. (1995) "Ground plans, evolutionary changes, and homologies in decapod crustacean brains" in The Nervous Systems of Invertebrates: An Evolutionary and Comparative Approach (eds. Breidbach O., Kutsch W.) Birkhäuser, Basel 329-347

Scholtz G. and Richter S. (1995) "Phylogenetic systematics of the reptantian Decapoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)" Zool J Linn Soc 113, 289-328

Scholtz G. (1995)" Head segmentation in Crustacea - an immunocytochemical study" Zoology 98, 104-114

Lundberg U. (1995) "Kurzgefaßter Wortschatz der Allgemeinen Zoologie" Gustav Fischer Verl. Jena, Stuttgart

Dohle W. and Scholtz G. (1995) "Segmentbildung im Keimstreif der Krebse - zelluläre Wechselwirkungen haben eine größere Bedeutung als die Zellgenealogie" Biologie in unserer Zeit 25, 90-100

Scholtz G. (1995) "Expression of the engrailed gene reveals nine putative segment-anlagen in the embryonic pleon of the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda)" Biol Bull 188, 157-165

Scholtz G. (1995) "Ursprung und Evolution der Flußkrebse (Crustacea, Astacida)" Sitzber nat Freunde Berlin (NF) 34, 93-115

Scholtz G. (1995) "The attachment of the young in the New Zealand freshwater crayfish Paranephrops zealandicus (White, 1848) (Decapoda, Astacida, Parastacidae)" New Zealand Natural Sciences 22, 81-89